Speech and Language Disorders
SPEECH DISORDERS - difficulty making sounds correctly. A speech disorder is an impairment of articulation of speech sounds, fluency or voice. Some causes may be related to hearing loss, stroke or severe head injury, or mental retardation. Speech disfluencies such as stuttering may be influenced by genetics, incoordination of speech muscles, environmental factors, or rate of language development.
LANGUAGE DISORDERS - includes comprehending spoken language or communicating thoughts or feelings. A language disorder is the impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken and written language necessary for expressing and understanding thoughts and ideas. Disorders of language affect children and adults differently.
For children who do not use language normally from birth, or who acquire the impairment in childhood, the disorder occurs in the context of a language system that is not fully developed or acquired. Adults acquire disorders of language because of stroke, head injury, dementia, or brain tumors.
COMMUNICATION DISORDERS - affect approximately 46 million Americans. Of these, 28 million have a hearing loss, 14 million have a speech or language disorder, and 4 million have a balance disorder, or suffer from smell and taste disorders.
ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) - a neurobiological condition seen primarily in the school-aged population that affects one' s ability to maintain attention. Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity have their effects on speech and language. Following instructions carefully and completely is difficult.
STROKE/APHASIA - a language disorder caused by stroke, drug use or brain injury. These disorders may make it difficult to think clearly, remember, or problem solve. For almost all right-handers and for about 1/2 of left-handers, damage to the left side of the brain causes aphasia. As a result, individuals who were previously able to communicate through speaking, listening, reading and writing become more limited in their ability to do so. The most common cause of aphasia is stroke.
SWALLOWING DISORDERS - known as dysphagia. This usually occurs as a result of illness, stroke, or surgery. Speech-language pathologists are the professionals who identify, assess, and treat speech and language problems including swallowing disorders.
VOICE DISORDERS - apparent when the quality of voice is affected or when the larynx is removed. May inhibit professional success.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS - Pitch, intonation, projection, body language, eye contact, facial expression - these could be sending different messages than the words.
TONGUE THRUST - can interfere with proper jaw development and tooth alignment and may result in a "lisp".
The Facts About Tongue Thrust: Questions and Answers
NONVERVBAL COMMUNICATION - we help find new possibilities for people who cannot speak, through augmentative communication using computers and communication boards.
Note: Links are here for informational purposes only.
Please consult a speech pathologist for diagnosis or treatment.